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At Christie’s | Three Country House Collections

I’m quite fascinated by these auction catalogues – not the simple glossy ones with nicely framed images – but the tomes dedicated entirely to well-researched collections. As a result I really do not need to add anything further here than what has been compiled by Christie’s. Nonetheless, please follow the links as there are some very fine pieces, indeed!

Enfilade

Press release (28 May 2015) from Christie’s:

Glebe House, Mont Pellier, and Woodbury House
Three Country House Collections, Sale #11567

Christie’s, South Kensington, London, 17 June 2015

GrabCommonFileStorageImage.aspxOn 17 June Christie’s South Kensington will offer Three Country House Collections: Glebe House, the Property of the late Mr. Anthony Hobson; Mont Pellier, the Property of the late Mrs. Barbara Overland; and Woodbury House, the Property of the late The Hon. Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Samuel (Sale #11567). These three country house collections perfectly encapsulate the English home and together they present a superb selection of English and European furniture, Old Master paintings and drawings, decorative objects, silver and porcelain.

The sale comprises over 350 lots with estimates ranging from £500 to £50,000. The pre-auction viewing at Christie’s 85 Old Brompton Road will be open from 12 to 16 June for connoisseurs, decorators and collectors alike to explore…

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Yorkshire Christmas Pie

Windsor Christmas-pie

A Yorkshire Christmas Pie being served up at Windsor Castle, mid nineteenth century.

 

After an exceptionally busy year in a new job – and new career for that matter, I have been able to return to my true love! Let it be known that countryhousereader will get the attention it deserves from now on; no more leaving it to the sidelines.

I thought it best to make a comeback with something festive, but also a minor dedication to two of the finest country houses in Yorkshire – Harewood House and Castle Howard. And with confirmation of an official Tour de Yorkshire in 2015, where better to celebrate!

In 2005, and riding on the coat tails of several exhibitions based on archival material which led to interpreting the house in more publicly accessible ways, Send it up Hot was published by the Castle Howard Estate. Similarly, Harewood House was reinventing its Kitchen and servant quarters below stairs after years of restoration. Both houses were establishing an awareness of their immediate surroundings too, and careful research was quickly bringing these architectural gems to different audiences; the sights, sounds and smells of the working country house were suddenly more tangible.

castle howard book

The abundant resources of the Yorkshire countryside made it an attractive purchase in any century to which we turn. The Yorkshire country house owner knew fine well how to promote the wealth of his estate and by turn knew this reflected the identity of the county. The Yorkshire Christmas Pie could be concocted anywhere, but its grandeur easily matches the landscape and bounty of the locality. If anything, its richness is a tribute to the diversity of the county and its heritage.

So, what is a Yorkshire Christmas Pie?

The Yorkshire Christmas Pie was a large game pie stuffed with mainly birds such as pheasant, partridge and turkey inside an elaborate pastry crust. The most quoted recipe is definitely that put together by Hannah Glasse from The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy (1747) and included in Castle Howard’s Send it up Hot:

FIRST make a good standing crust, let the wall and bottom be very thick; bone a turkey, a goose, a fowl, a partridge, and a pigeon, Season them all very well, take half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and half an ounce of black-pepper, all beat fine together, two large spoonfuls of salt, and then mix them together. Open the fowls all down the back, and bone them; first the pigeon, then the partridge; cover them; then the fowls then the goose, and then the turkey, which must be large; season them all well first, and lay them in the crust, so as it will look only like a whole turkey; then have a hare ready cased, and wiped with a clean cloth. Cut it to pieces, that is, joint it; season it, and lay it as close as you can on one side; on the other side woodcocks, moor game, and what sort of wild-fowl you can get. Season them well, and lay them close; put at least four pounds of butter into the pie, then lay on your lid, which must be a very thick one, and let it be well baked. It must have a very hot oven, and will take at least four hours. This crust will take a bushel of flour. These pies are often sent to London in a box, as presents; therefore, the walls must be well built.

Harewood-pie2

An example of one of the huge copper pie moulds from the kitchen at Harewood House

Of course these mammoth pies were deliberately magnificent in time for the festive season, but a truly grand present to receive at Christmas, no doubt about that! Merry Christmas to one and all!!

Ivan Day at Harewood Some Christmas Recipes

Only the best at Christmas http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/how-to-eat-like-a-king-for-christmas-11475686/?no-ist=&page=1

History of the Yorkshire Christmas Pie http://www.yorkshirelife.co.uk/food-drink/the_history_of_the_yorkshire_christmas_pie_1_3103216

The Christmas Pie http://savoringthepast.net/2012/12/19/the-christmas-pie/

Dining with the Washingtons http://www.mountvernon.org/recipes/yorkshire-christmas-pie

Georgian London and Hannah Glasse’s recipe for Yorkshire Christmas Pie http://georgianlondon.com/post/49461238015/hannahs-yorkshire-christmas-pie

Glasse recipe book https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dYIEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145&dq=yorkshire+christmas+pie&source=bl&ots=cy4-_I0_rC&sig=MPQlasx8pS1aDm_xkAlC2fgo6JY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4veRVPHoLM7tasnngogN&ved=0CE8Q6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=yorkshire%20christmas%20pie&f=false

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BBC News: Stars of film and television

Arley Hall

The following is an article from the BBC News website which highlights the growing sense of place found in the (mainly English) country house today and how this can be captured on film. Prompted by Disney’s Evermoor which will be filmed at Arley Hall in Cheshire (above), the attraction of the country house for native and international television viewers and film audiences is still clearly strong.

[Original BBC News article can be found here.]

Arley Hall, Cheshire.

This country house is to be used as the set of the Disney Channel’s first UK live production. Evermoor, a teen drama, will be filmed at Arley Hall, near Warrington, with the Victorian property becoming the latest English stately home used to wow an international audience. The house has previously featured in programmes including Hollyoaks, Coronation Street and The Forsyte Saga. The UK Press – particularly The Independent anticipate the arrival of a new setting which could equal that of Hogwarts, otherwise known as Alnwick Castle (see below).

Here is a selection of other spectacular settings made famous by Hollywood and the TV screen.

Highclere Castle, Hampshire

Highclere Castle
Downton Abbey filming

As a friend of the owners, Downton Abbey writer Julian Fellowes had Highclere Castle in mind as he wrote the first series of the period drama.

The last series of the ITV show pulled in an average of 11.8 million viewers in the UK. A new instalment is due later this year. The Newbury castle is home to the Earl and Countess of Carnarvon.

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Alnwick Castle, Northumberland

Alnwick Castle

Harry Potter’s Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry came to life on screen in the magical surroundings of Alnwick Castle. Owned by the Duke and Duchess of Northumberland, the castle now offers “broomstick training” to its younger visitors.

Jonathan Kewley, honorary secretary of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, said the attraction of country houses to film makers – and visitors – was the fact they were “big enough to be a world”.

He said: “Most of these country houses are set in large grounds and once you go in you’re inside an enclosed world. “They’re big enough for children to get lost in and find all sorts of hidden rooms or explore outside and it’s easier to suspend a sense of disbelief.”

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Chatsworth House, Derbyshire

Chatsworth House

The 2005 adaptation of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice used Chatsworth House as Mr Darcy’s residence.

The enormous grounds, home to the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, have also welcomed casts and crews of The Duchess, starring Kiera Knightley, and horror film The Wolf Man.

Mr Kewley said many visitors to stately homes were more interested in the human stories attached to them rather than the buildings themselves. He said: “People go round and think ‘what would it be like to live here?’ Visitors are interested in the people who did live in the homes and what their back story is.”

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Kenwood House, London

Kenwood House, London

The Hampstead location for scenes from the movie Notting Hill is described by English Heritage as “London’s hidden gem”.

Kenwood House also featured in the Peter O’Toole movie Venus.

Mr Kewley said the cultural differences between England and other countries- and the fact architecture in the country was quite different to that found elsewhere – added to the mystery and intrigue surrounding country homes.

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Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire

Blenheim Palace

Sir Winston Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace and it is now a World Heritage Site. It also boats an impressive list of film credits. James Corden and Catherine Tate starred in 2010’s Gulliver’s Travels while parts of Harry Potter and the Indiana Jones films were also shot at the Woodstock mansion.

The Scarlet Pimpernel, released in 1934, was the first film to make use of the grounds.

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Unions, Politics and Country Houses.

Times article

The Sunday Times for 21 April 2013

Whilst flicking through someone else’s copy of The Sunday Times late last week, I found this article (yes, that is my bad attempt at tearing). The link to it is here, but you have to subscribe to read it in full. Nevermind, I can give a brief summary of its finer points, even if the headline was disappointingly misleading.

Basically, the article writers – Isabel Oakeshott and Jack Grimston – report that some of Britain’s militant unions are ‘operating luxurious holiday accommodation and rural retreats where shop stewards and members can enjoy breaks’. ‘Militant unions’ are those with strong left-wing policies, seeking to support the fundamental rights of workers, usually those in low or average income roles typically found in the public sector. I worked in the public sector for a while and my own views of unions was, and still is, a bit of a confused indifference.

However, the things that intrigued me most about this article were the notions of luxury and exuberance which somehow have party political connotations. The views of those mentioned in the article seemed to assume that only those with extensive private wealth independent of employed work should be permitted the enjoyment of large architectural structures with plush décor and coffee machines. Apparently, those who claim to have the needs of the working man as their top priority should not be able to justify the use of such accommodation; they become ‘champagne socialists’. Now, that may be true, and it did make me laugh out loud! But these are terms which get bandied about by opposing parties whenever the time is right to test political convictions. That an article like this has popped up is simply due to the muddle of political ideas in Britain today. A muddle within which we see political commentators attempt to define terms like ‘divisive’ for a week after Margaret Thatcher died.

While it seems absurd that the union representative – the shop steward – should be staying at a 5 star hotel at a discounted rate whilst their fellow colleagues slug it out for 8 hours and endure the commute home, it only serves to show how ridiculous politics can be in Britain. But interestingly, the country house has a role in this too. The article gives four sites as retreats, but only one is a ‘country home’ in the truest sense, that being Stoke Rochford Hall in Lincolnshire which is owned by the National Union of Teachers (NUT), run by Christine Blower.

Stoke Rochford, Lincolnshire

Stoke Rochford, Lincolnshire

Stoke Rochford is entirely commercial and sells itself as a state of the art, hotel, conference and banqueting facility. Finding any meaty historical facts about the place is rather difficult, but the website at least says it was built in the 1840s and has recently undergone a £12million transformation thanks to English Heritage.

So, the question here is not so much about political convictions, but about perceptions of heritage and its accessibility. Certainly this is one of the most regular features of debates surrounding heritage and museums, but I am somehow comforted that a place like Stoke Rochford is still in use. There is the feeling that the ordinary folk still remain excluded though when full rate prices start at £59 for a standard room. I do not know what the solution is since heritage still insists on conjuring up images of class distinction and cultural capital, especially in Britain. Who has access, or who has rights to heritage? It would require a massive shake up of these deep-rooted attitudes in our culture whatever an individual’s financial background and party political stance.

Only days before this article was published did debates over the possibilities of reinstating charges to the national museums begin again. That too was concerned with class and accessibility, and whether the middle classes were making up the visitor numbers by going back more than once rather than the museum attracting new visitors every time.

I’d like to come back to this argument again when economies are brighter and the value of culture is not being undermined.

In the meantime though, there is something I am sure of, and that’s a good old fashioned plot! Many a country house has been host to successful or failed attempts to rid the country of its monarch or particularly unsavoury policymakers. Many were highly destructive volatile acts. The Gunpowder Plot for one got as far as it did because of the links its conspirators had with the elite. Calling like-minded individuals under one roof is a sure fire way of moving things along quicker. Today, those ‘militant unions’ are discussing workers’ strikes and trying to protect pensions, but the sought-after arena has altered little.

 

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Contractors and Craftsmen- Now and Then

Some lovely archival material mentions here, so certainly worth a share!

Attingham Park

The contractors who will be working on the Through the Roof Project for the next 46 weeks or so have arrived on site. They have begun the preparations for the project which will see a glazed secondary roof inserted into the heart of the Mansion to protect the leaking John Nash cast iron roof over the Picture Gallery. Their storage compounds are being set up (luckily the sun is out for them) and they will begin to move materials into selected areas of the Mansion from tomorrow. This will be a small feat in itself, as acess to the site where they will be working is limited –  we can show you next week how they are going to do it !

Activity has really begun as preparations continue, ready for the project to go ahead. The presence of builders, surveyors and architects around the Mansion can make us think of how…

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Review. Servants: The True Story of Life Below Stairs, (BBC2) Episode 1/3

In the midst of moving house clutter, boxes, odds and ends etc., I found a spare bit of sofa and made time to watch the first episode of Servants: the True Story of Life below Stairs. Presented by Dr. Pamela Cox from the Department of Sociology at the University of Essex, this first programme of three explored the employment hierarchies, working conditions and contemporary attitudes towards servants during the 19th century to the turn of the 20th with emphasis on domestic structures between country and town.

Basement passage at Erddig, Wales, 1973 (National Trust)

We were immediately introduced to Erddig in Wales – the most obvious example of servant culture readily accessible through the UK National Trust. This was country house levels of servitude where servant numbers could be overwhelming, and the mistress of the house had to be adept at managing several departments every day. We caught glimpses of portraiture, photography and verse depicting and describing members of the household staff from housekeeper and butler to carpenter and lady’s maid. Of course Erddig is renowned for its servant portraiture, and the relationships maintained by the Yorke family with their staff from the 1780s have been well documented; a fact of which Cox seemed to have been made aware. Consequently, this visual material became the pivot with which we moved off into the less well documented world of servant lives.

However, Erddig is an unusual case study. It is a small country house with its own set of values and traditions. That the Yorke family preserved so much of their unique relationship with their staff for so long only highlights the eccentricities of that particular household. The dominant generalisation concerning the 19th century country house and its household suggests that servants were seldom seen and never heard. The family spouted orders to nameless shapes and merrily continued with their daily routine above stairs whilst the mechanics of the house ticked away below. And yet, Cox did stress the existence of this ideal both at Erddig and beyond.

Employers were the literate class in most cases. The Erddig poems and ‘jingling rhyming couplets’ about the staff are very one-sided.[1] But this is precisely where Servants and Dr Pamela Cox’s presentation filled a gap in national television schedules. This was an academic take on a subject which has become dramatised and treated with soap opera style editing complete with cliff-hangers and female actors with porcelain skin. The reams of material culture at Erddig are examples of what can be found at archives and libraries across the country. It may not be quite so revealing in its content, but search and you shall find threads of forgotten events and stories which easily bring many of these houses to life. And while it probably didn’t shed any new light on the subject for academics, Servants is very likely to get viewers thinking about working conditions over a hundred years ago.

The Diary of William Tayler, Footman, 1837. (London, 1998 Edition)

The activities of scrubbing, polishing, mending, fetching and carrying were the norm for the majority of people who did not have others to do this for them. Being paid to do this kind of work did not lessen the burden of a 15 hour or more day, but having your own bed, or a place to keep your own things were the small perquisites of working away from home. Despite some heavy sentimentality in places, Cox cleverly added that being a servant offered instances of cultural freedoms which might have been denied to those who sought work elsewhere. As we moved from the country house and it complex hierarchies, Cox explored the rising trends for middle-class households to keep servants. Many came from the country to seek work in the large townhouses, and so this urban landscape provided the backdrop to different routines, fashions, foods, and entertainments. Servants watched from the sidelines, but they still formed their own ideals and opinions about the things that unfolded around them.

Perhaps it is symptomatic of current trends in British television and how history is portrayed through documentaries. In advertising the programme, great emphasis was placed upon statistics, and indeed throughout the programme we were treated to the private papers preserved by the descendants of those who had worked in service. Even Cox herself declared her maid-of-all-work heritage. As an exploration of ‘real’ lives, I would have expected more demonstrations of actual work, but Servants seems more subtle and of course, academic. The BBC probably suggested that they leave the dressing up and bed-making to Lucy Worsley and the wall-stroking to Dan Cruickshank with this series. For Cox, this programme is about recognising our own heritage; it’s about the ordinary, not the unusual. And with that, we were

Harriet Rogers, lady’s maid and then housekeeper at Erddig.

brought back to Erddig in order to see how servant working lives were often pitted against familial relationships and emotional dependencies. This is life, in any period. Laborious menial work might not be considered noble, and undertaking it for others has always been seen as submissive and miserable. As the programme develops over the next two episodes, these attitudes will become much clearer, I am sure of that, and as we move past our family histories towards the present day, what makes a ‘servant’ will no doubt have a few people shaking their heads.

Links:

Review by Michael Pilgrim in The Telegraph http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9574278/Servants-the-True-Story-of-Life-Below-Stairs-BBC-Two-review.html#

Review by Mark Sanderson at The Art Desk http://www.theartsdesk.com/tv/servants-true-story-life-below-stairs-bbc-two

There is no world outside Downton Abbey for The Sun http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/showbiz/tv/4553354/Dr-Pamela-Cox-explores-truth-of-servants-in-early-20th-Century.html

University of Essex review, with further links http://www.essex.ac.uk/news/event.aspx?e_id=4504

Brighton and Hove heritage the Regency servant http://rth.org.uk/histories/regency/daily-life/servants

References (Select bibliography as there is a vast number of books on this subject):

Samuel and Sarah Adams, The Complete Servant (1825)

Leonore Davidoff, Worlds Between: Historical Perspectives on Gender and Class (Cambridge, 1995).

Erddig. Guidebook, National Trust (London, 1978)

Jessica Gerard, Country House Life: Family and Servants, 1815-1914 (Oxford, 1994).

Christina Hardyment, Home Comfort: A History of Domestic Arrangements. National Trust (London, 1992)

Edward Higgs, Domestic Servants and Households in Rochdale, 1851-1871 (1986)

Pamela Horn, Flunkeys and Scullions: Life Below Stairs in Georgian England (Stroud, 2004)

Pamela Horn, The Rise and Fall of the Victorian Servant (Stroud, 2000)

Frank Edward Huggett, Life Below Stairs: Domestic Servants in England from Victorian Times, Part 2 (1977)

Pamela A. Sambrook, The Country House Servant. National Trust (Stroud, 2004)

Pamela Sambrook, Keeping Their Place: Domestic Service in the Country House (Stroud, 2007)

E. S. Turner, What the Butler Saw: Two Hundred and Fifty Years of the Servant Problem. (London, 1962).

Merlin Waterson, The Servants’ Hall: A Domestic History of Erddig (London, 1980)


[1] Merlin Waterson, The Servants’ Hall: A Domestic History of Erddig (Routledge, London, 1980), p. 7

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Thomas Chippendale Country House Commissions 1757-1779

'Violin' bookcase made for the Earl of Pembroke 1763, Wilton House.

          Having written very recently on the late eighteenth-century inventory of Harewood House, Yorkshire, I thought this might be a useful adage to the Thomas Chippendale pool of knowledge! Although Chippendale, and his son Thomas Chippendale the Younger are well-known names – often overwhelmingly so, their craftsmanship still receives great interest. The following list is not exhaustive and there may be houses which have been wrongly linked with Chippendale, but I am dependant on a mixture of old and relatively up-to-date sources – besides I am no Chippendale expert!

         As F. Gordon Roe points out in Old English Furniture, ‘…the tendency to label almost everything of certain types ‘Chippendale’ has robbed other leading craftsmen or designers of their due share of credit … On the other hand, some writers have perhaps tended unduly to minimize Chippendale’s importance, for though it is obvious that his firm could not have produced more than a fraction of the work so freely assigned to it, he was evidently a craftsman of outstanding merit.’ (p. 9) Not every commission was extensive, and some patrons may have desired only one or two pieces for their remodelled library or state rooms, others demanded entire suites of furniture. In either case, we should remember that Chippendale was not a lone craftsman and may rarely have even touched the pieces which left his London workshop.

THE HOUSES.

  • Alscot Park, Warwickshire, for James West, 1760-67.
  • Appuldurcombe House, Isle of Wight, for Sir Richard Worsley 1776-78. (Only the shell remains and is now owned by English Heritage).
  • Arniston, Midlothian, for Lord and Lady Arniston, 1757.
  • Aske Hall, Yorkshire, for Sir Laurence Dundas 1763-66.
  • Audley End, Essex, for Sir John Griffin, 1774.
  • Badminton House, Gloucestershire for the Duchess of Beaufort, 1764.
  • Blair Castle, Perthshire, for the Duke of Athol, 1758.
  • ? Boynton Hall, Yorkshire, for Sir George Strickland, 1768?
  • Brockenhurst Park, Hampshire, for Edward Morant, 1769.
  • Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, for Lord Melbourne, 1771-76.
  • Burton Constable, Yorkshire, for William Constable, 1768-79 (also for his London home in Mansfield Square).
  • Cannon Hall, Yorkshire, for John Spencer, 1768.
  • Corsham Court, Wiltshire, for Paul Methuen, 1779.
  • Croome Court, Worcestershire, for the Earl of Coventry, 1764-70 (also his London home 29 Piccadilly).
  • Dalmahoy, Midlothian, for the 14th Earl of Morton, 1762.
  • Dalton Hall, Yorkshire, for Charles Hotham-Thompson, 1777.
  • Denton Park, Otley, Yorkshire, for James Ibbetson (Chippendale’s only commission within his own parish).
  • Dumfries House, Ayrshire, for the 5th Earl of Dumfries, 1759-66.
  • ? Firle Place, Sussex, for Sir Thomas Gage, 1770s?
  • Foremark Hall, Derbyshire, for Sir Robert Burdett, 1766-74.
  • Goldsborough Hall, Yorkshire, for Daniel Lascelles 1771-76.
  • Goodneston, Kent, for Sir Brook Bridges, 1765.
  • Harewood House, Yorkshire, for Edwin Lascelles, 1769-76.
  • Hestercombe House, Somerset, for Coplestone Ware Bamfylde, no date.
  • Langton Hall, Yorkshire, for Thomas Norcliffe, 1767.
  • Kenwood House, Middlesex, for the 1st Ealr of Mansfield, 1769.
  • Mersham le Hatch, Kent, for Sir Edward Knatchbull, 1767-79.
  • Newby Hall, Yorkshire, for William Weddell, c.1772-76.
  • Normanton Park, Rutland, for Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1768-79.
  • Nostell Priory, Yorkshire, for Sir Rowland Winn 1766-79 (also his London home 11 St James’s Square).
  • Paxton House, Berwickshire, for Ninian Home ,1774.
  • Petworth House, Sussex, for the Earl of Egremont, 1777-78.
  • Saltram House, Devon, for Lord Boringdon, 1771.
  • Sandon Hall, Staffordshire, for the Earl of Harrowby, 1763-77.
  • Sherbourne Castle, Dorset, for Earl Digby, 1774.
  • Stourhead House, Wiltshire, for Sir Richard Colt Hoare (Thomas Chippendale the Younger, 1790s).
  • Stowe House, Buckinghamshire, for Earl Temple, 1757.
  • Temple Newsam House, Yorkshire, for Viscount Irwin 1774 (and Chippendale the Younger, 1790s).
  • Thoresby Park, Nottinghamshire, for the Duke of Kingston, 1770.
  • Wilton House, Wiltshire, for the Earl of Pembroke 1762-73 (also his London home Pembroke House).
  • Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire, for the Earl of Hardwicke, 1777.
  • Wolverley House, Worcestershire, for Edward Knight Jnr., 1763-69.

Japanned wardrobe, Nostell Priory.

Half round or sidetables made for Denton Hall, now on display at Temple Newsam.

Bookcase at Dumfries House

References:

Oliver Brackett, Thomas Chippendale: A Study of His Life, Work, and Influence(1924). The Burlington Magazine. Vol. 122, No. 927, (June, 1980). 
 
Anthony Coleridge, Chippendale Furniture: The Work of Thomas Chippendale and His Contemporaries in the Rococo Taste (1968).
 
Christopher Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale,(1978).Peter Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the Eighteenth Century (1958).
 
Clifford Musgrave, Adam and Hepplewhite and Other NeoClassical Furniture (1966).
 
 
Links:
 
Thomas Chippendale on Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Chippendale
 
Thomas Chippendale. The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director: being a large collection of the most elegant and useful designs of household furniture in the Gothic, Chinese and modern taste. (1754). Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture. University of Wisconsin.  http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts-idx?id=DLDecArts.ChippGentCab

The Chippendale Society http://www.thechippendalesociety.co.uk/index.htm

Useful biography of Thomas Chippendale (in need of modernising!) http://216.92.23.157/chippendale/chronology.htm

Ronald Phillips Antiques – fantastic images of Chippendale furniture  http://www.ronaldphillipsantiques.com/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=5&categoryID=7777

Learn the Chippendale way! http://www.chippendale.co.uk/

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