Tag Archives: Palladianism

Out with the Old, In with the New.

The last few weeks have been particularly hectic for me. I have been massively distracted by the Olympics, and needless to say, I wish I’d maintained the skills I had in hockey when I left college! Nevermind though, perhaps I could take up handball in time for Rio. Apart from sport, I have kept to my books a little bit, and whilst I clearly haven’t attended to my blog, that doesn’t mean to say that it hasn’t been a platform for activity.

I have had several requests and queries from folk including the desire of an elderly lady to deposit her great great grandfather’s photograph album of Halton House, Buckinghamshire at the archives there, through to prompts and ‘shout-outs’ regarding academic courses, image copyright and project developments.

Besides all that, I’m about to move house too. After almost two years in rural Oxfordshire, I am packing my things and going to the Big Smoke of England – London. And so, this got me thinking about elements of house moving on a larger scale than that of a standard three bedroomed semi-detached house. Typically, the country house is synonymous with patrilineal inheritance, static wealth and legacies, so much so, that we forget how common it is for houses themselves to have had several occupiers and owners over the decades or centuries. Houses and portions of estate might have formed part of a bargaining tool in times of political turmoil, or merely advertised as leasehold properties in newspapers, rented out to close friends or family, or simply sold on the market. Whatever the circumstances, many houses have seen a great deal of movement. Imagine the hubbub as the house move gains pace; the packing of crates and boxes, the taking of inventories, the to and fro of servants and agents, the anguish over a lost item.

Moving House by Vincenzo Campi 1580-90, Oil on canvas (previously shown at the V&A)

Another aspect of the large-scale house move would be in building and creating the country house from the moment the first stone was set. Landed gains of the 16th century after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, or industrial wealth of the 18th and 19th centuries are part of this debate, but I want to take a peek at one family – the Cokes. Their ‘house move’ epitomised the desire for residential expansion in the 18th century as well as conspicuous consumption of fashionable goods and design on a large scale. It also highlights the giant sense of resettlement in order to gain dynastic stability for an elite family.

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The Cokes owned the manor of Minster Lovell, Oxfordshire from the turn of the 17th century.  The manor house at Minster Lovell is now a ruin perched romantically on the edge of the River Windrush as it winds away from the Cotswolds.

Minster Lovell

Minster Lovell (owned by English Heritage, author’s own image)

There had been a house on the site since the 12th century, but the ruins are mainly what remains of a large new structure built in the 1430s by William, Baron of Lovell and Holand. William and his descendants, most notably his grandson Francis Lovell were to make good political connections and riches through marriage, and loyalty to the king. This was, however undone when Francis supported Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The Lovell estates were turned over to the Crown, and so Minster Lovell was stripped of its owner/occupier. The Cokes made their appearance by 1603 when it came into the possession of the most successful and influential lawyer of his time Sir Edward Coke, who may have viewed the manor house as a retreat or lodge close enough to England’s capital, but far away enough to experience peace and serenity. In any case, the house itself provided him with a good rental income.

Portrait of Thomas Coke by Francesco Trevisani (Earl of Leicester Collection)

It his descendant, Thomas Coke, (1697-1759, Earl of Leicester created 1744) who is important here as it is claimed he was in residence at Minster Lovell in the 1720s, even advancing to the peerage with the title of Baron Lovell of Minster Lovell in May 1728. Coke had been on an extensive Grand Tour as a teenager and returned to England in 1718 with a plethora of goods including art works by Claude, several sculptures and some works of Leonardo da Vinci – most notable of his Grand Tour treasures being the Codex Leicester. It is unlikely that any of these fine things ever reached Minster Lovell, as Coke had other plans. The family obviously held other estates. Stoke Poges in Buckinghamshire was where Sir Edward Coke retired to in the early 1600s, but it was in the possession of Sir Richard Halsey by the 1720s. So, where else was there? John Hostettler in his book on Sir Edward Coke mentions ‘the estates’ as a collective and only one in particular – Holkham in Norfolk.*

It is likely there was a residence on the Holkham estate in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, though much of that part of the Norfolk landscape was barren marshland before Thomas Coke reclaimed it in 1722 for landscaping. As far as I can tell there seems to be a connection to a Waterden Hill Hall which was described as ‘near falling down for want of an inhabitant’ in 1678. Today, wherever Hill Hall existed (possibly now known as Waterden Farm), it is only 3 or 4 kilometres n0rth from Waterden farmland to one of the most gorgeous pieces of Palladian architecture in England.

The south front of Holkham Hall, Norfolk.

Thomas Coke started Holkham Hall in 1734, with the intention of housing his wealth of Grand Tour treasures as well as showcasing his appreciation of classical art and culture. The awesome nature of Holkham is found in the magnificent Marble Hall with its plaster dome ceiling and alabaster shipped from Derbyshire – ingredients which marked the beginning of a new era in country house building and design. There is much to be said about Holkham Hall and Thomas Coke. He was well acquainted with Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington and William Kent, he was clearly a key part of the social network known as the ‘dilettanti’, but like many elite men of his generation he made hasty investments and financial losses during the South Sea Bubble in 1720 delayed the building work. It is likely therefore that Holkham may have been started even earlier if it was not for this depletion of funds.

Conjectured view of Minster Lovell Hall and Dovecote in the 18th century (copyright English Heritage)

Minster Lovell and other Coke estates were but stepping stones to greater things. The old Oxfordshire manor was incredibly outdated, dusty even, it was too compact and secluded. The characteristics which presumably had made it attractive to Sir Edward Coke were now disadvantageous. The new house at Holkham was meant to be an architectural cabinet of riches. Coke’s sculptures were to be displayed in his Marble Hall, and so numerous were they, that some were placed in the dining room and a gallery which incidentally was also used for entertaining. The experience of visiting Holkham Hall both in the 18th century and today is certainly one of pomp. The educated Coke returning from the European Continent was a sophisticated, well-connected young man, and was eager to declare this to a wider audience. Upon advancement to the peerage in 1728 with a title which linked him so closely to Minster Lovell, Coke had already been planning his new house, he was just waiting for the right moment to begin.

The Statue Gallery at Holkham Hall (copyright England’s Finest)

This was all about consolidating funds and creating a grand establishment from where the Coke estates could be efficiently administered. Anything resembling a residence on the other estates could be leased and therefore generated further income. However, the Cokes still held onto the manor at Minster Lovell, even selling off building materials from the house in 1747. The remainder of the land still in the possession of the Cokes (mainly woodland) was sold by 1854. Unfortunately, Thomas Coke never got to see his new house on the Holkham estate finished, dying in 1759 around the age of 62 and still struggling to recover his financial losses: it would take another five years for the house to be completed. His descendants still reside at Holkham throughout the year, and make regular use of the state rooms out of season.

My house move is rather more ordinary. I do not have estates to manage, or capital to expand. My dynastic legacy will still be a suburban semi-detached house with a garage and garden. Nor do I have aspirations to appear on Grand Designs, but if I did have the finances, I’d be sure to purchase a good bit of land and build something suitably generous and accommodating.

* According to the index of Holkham Hall papers, audit books for the 1720s show estates in Suffolk, Kent, Dorset, and Norfolk, amongst others.

Links:

Minster Lovell Hall (English Heritage) http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/minster-lovell-hall-and-dovecote/

British History Online – Minster Lovell http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117025

Some gorgeous pictures of Minster Lovell http://katie-randomnest.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/little-wander-round-minster-lovell.html

Historic Houses Association and Holkham Hall http://www.hha.org.uk/Property/62/Holkham-Hall

Art Collections at Holkham Hall http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_collections_of_Holkham_Hall

Creating Holkham Hall http://lifetakeslemons.wordpress.com/2011/05/26/the-bones-of-holkham-hall/

A visit to Holkham http://glasspilgrim.blogspot.co.uk/2010/11/holkham-hall.html

References:

Olive Cook, The English Country House. (1974)

John Hostettler, Sir Edward Coke: A Force for Freedom. (Chichester, 1997)

Leo Schmidt and Christian B. Keller, Holkham. (2005)

A. J. Taylor, Minster Lovell Hall. (English Heritage Guidebooks, 1985)

Richard Wilson and Alan Mackley, The Building of the English Country House. (2000)

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Filed under Architecture and Design, Building the Country House, Collections, Men and the Country House

Establishing the English Country House Style; Part I, Nancy Lancaster

‘You never wanted to have only one mouvement thing like the Savonnaire rug that would stand out. You must have mouvement everywhere.’

Nancy Lancaster, ‘Beautiful Houses Remembered’, Architectural Digest, (December 1980) Quoted in Martin Wood, Nancy Lancaster: English Country House Style. (2005), p. 35

          

A closet room at Ditchley Park,(watercolour by Alexandre Serebriakoff c.1948)

The English Country House Style was an aesthetic established in the 1920s. Its ideals were founded on elegance, taste and comfort; its colours, themes and arrangements and can still be seen in interior design today. It is Nancy Lancaster who is most associated with the English Country House Style, though there were many others. Many worked together on projects, others established businesses together as interior designers, and some simply socialised with one another. Above all, the English Country House Style was about reinstating the spirit of a place without the trappings of stately opulence. Its Englishness lay in the inspiration found in existing architecture – particularly Palladian country houses and the fondness for clutter and shabby edged upholstery. Its place in time also serves as a reminder of how the English country house and its owner were subject to irreversible financial difficulties during the interwar period and struggled to keep up with a changing society.

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          Born and raised a Virginian, Nancy Lancaster (nee Perkins, 1897-1994) already had family connections with England mainly through her aunts – three of the five elegant Langhorne sisters. Her aunt Nancy (1879-1964) married Waldorf Astor (1879-1952) and became Viscountess Astor of Hever and was the first woman to sit as a Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons. Phyllis (1880-1937) married Robert Brand (1878-1963) Lord Hampden, later Baron Brand of Eydon in Northamptonshire. Nora (1889-1955) married Paul Phipps, an English architect whose partnership with Oswald Partridge Milne in 1919 provided a practice which consisted mainly of country house work; Nancy would later ’employ’ her uncle to assist with her own projects. Nancy’s own mother was the eldest of the Langhorne sisters, whose own interior designs were, ‘before her time. She papered or painted her rooms in off tones of grey. One range of colour throughout made the space seem larger than  if the rooms were all of different colours.’

           Nancy herself, was married three times, and in many ways the impact of her own interiors and resulting style were the product of these marriages. Firstly she married in early 1917, Henry Field – one of the most eligible bachelors of the day. They would be married for only five months when Henry died of blood poisoning after a routine operation to remove his tonsils. Stricken by grief, and having suffered a probable breakdown, Nancy eventually spent some time in 1918 with family in England. It was on the trip over that she met with Ronald Tree, a cousin of Henry Field, and someone who had previously shown great interest in Nancy. They would be married two years later at St James’s Church in Piccadilly but divorced by 1947. Her third marriage was to Lieutenant Colonel Claude ‘Jubie’ Lancaster in the summer of 1948. A Member of Parliament for Fylde in Lancashire, ‘Jubie’ was the owner of Kelmarsh Hall in Northamptonshire and had already known Nancy when she and Ronald Tree rented the property for themselves as part of a repairing lease between 1928 and 1933.

          Nancy’s style and tastes had their origins in her family home of Mirador in Albermarle Country, Virginia. Built as a plantation house in the 1830s, Mirador is typical of a Virginian plantation home with four rooms on each floor and a central through hall. It became Nancy’s in 1922 and she set about decorating her home immediately with advice from family friend and architect William Adams Delano (1874-1960). The first

Mirador Entrance Front (Photo by Frances Benjamin Johnston, 1926)

improvement to make at Mirador was to restore the entrance front and realign the symmetrical details to give a more ‘neo-classical or Virginian’ aspect. Bigger bathrooms were added, the staircase was opened up with the use of a large skylight, a drawing room was incorporated into the arrangement of rooms on the first floor and each room received a new lick of paint. Crucially, Nancy’s own heritage at Mirador meant that she wished to retain a degree of comfort and a feeling of inherited sensibility. She used several pieces of furniture that had stayed in the house from her grandparents’ day but added faded fabrics and upholstery from neighbourhood sales and antique warehouses. These were arranged in a style influenced by Ogden Codman’s New York townhouse (‘an elegant Parisian ensemble’) which Nancy and Ronald Tree rented when they were first married between 1920 and 1922. Altogether, the stylistic arrangement at Mirador was a mix of two or three influences. On the one hand it was informed by European ideals as viewed by Delano and Codman who had both worked in the Beaux-Arts tradition the characteristics of which consisted of Classical architectural details with heavy influences from French and Italian Baroque. On the other hand, Nancy had a great deal of involvement in retaining the flavours of her family home, partly because of the boundaries set out by her aunts who did not wish to see massive changes, but also because she yearned to improve the house in-keeping with notions that rooms must look as though they had been used and enjoyed for many years – a certain patina. This would be her criteria of ‘design mouvement’ in later years, eventually making it part of a list of seven points which she felt were important for her particular interior design ethos;

I never think that sticking slavishly to one period is successful, a touch of nostalgia adds charm. One needs light and shade because if every piece is perfect the room becomes a museum and lifeless.

        The move to England in 1927 was the result of her second husband Ronald’s attempts to establish himself in elite society. He had never really been successful whilst in America and sought to make the most of his English roots. In 1926 he was offered the joint mastership of the Pytchley Hunt in Northamptonshire – a position which would offer strong connections within the rural community. Nancy was supposedly reluctant to make the move at first, but agreed so long as she could keep Mirador and return to it each year.

          In England, Nancy would be involved in the design of about half a dozen houses, or projects, during the rest of her life including Kelmarsh Hall, Ditchley Park and Haseley Court; with so many connections Nancy renounced her American citizenship in 1948. However, by 1927, the Trees needed a place which projected Ronald’s position in elite society, and to begin with they rented Cottesbrooke Hall, Northamptonshire, but Nancy did not feel at home there. After about a year

Kelmarsh Hall

Kelmarsh Hall Entrance Front

they began renting Kelmarsh Hall from Colonel Claude ‘Jubie’ Lancaster. To Nancy it was perfect and was very much the English version of her beloved Mirador. This was simple Palladian architecture at its best. Built by James Gibbs (1682-1754) in about 1730, its arrangement of rooms was similar to that of Mirador, but its size compared to the Virginian house was far grander and contained far more complex decorative schemes. This was a challenge to Nancy, but her first priority lay with Kelmarsh’s need for modernisation. With the assistance of her uncle Paul Phipps, Kelmarsh gained proper heating, electric light and several bathrooms. As for the main interior furnishings, Nancy enlisted the help of Mrs Guy Bethell a partner in the celebrated shop, E. Elden just off Grosvenor Square in London. The creativity of Nancy, Phipps, Mrs Bethell and the painter Mr Kicks gave Kelmarsh Hall a softened elegance. Nancy had used similar techniques to those she had used at Mirador such as worn fabrics like leather, chintz and silk and odd-shaped furniture, but added Bethell’s chic new trimmings to the bedrooms and saloon. Most important was her use of colour throughout which attempted to replicate some of the original tones found in the house or elsewhere. The pink hue of the hall was inspired by the dining room at Rushbrooke Hall in Suffolk (demolished in 1961), the greens and greys of the saloon were inspired by Houghton Hall in Norfolk, with the Chinese wallpaper of the drawing room acquired directly from Kimberley Hall, Norfolk.

           Nancy and Ronald left Kelmarsh in 1933 when the Wall Street Crash and the Depression crept across their rural idyll, and Ronald had to resign as Master of the Hunt. Although they had funds in America, the Trees were able to invest in another property – Ditchley Park before the end of the year. Kelmarsh Hall would be granted back to Claude ‘Jubie’ Lancaster and when the repairing lease was finally up in 1938, much of the furniture was sold at auction. ‘Jubie’ bought considerable lots and restored them to the arrangements set out by Nancy; many still remain in the house today. Ditchley Park would become one of the most celebrated houses connected with Nancy Lancaster, and shall be discussed in Establishing the English Country House Style: Part II, but from the moment Nancy began her modernisation of Mirador in 1922 the ideas were already in motion.

 

The Hall and Chinese Drawing room at Kelmarsh (Country Life images)

  Nancy Lancaster was by no means the sole designer, and although her name is most synonymous with the English Country House Style, Nancy should be regarded rather more of a facilitator of the style. The scene had been set and merely needed its players; Nancy was the lead in this instance and exploited the drama of an older world at a time when English rural society was on the verge of changing forever. To this style, Nancy brought her fondness for her own Virginian home and an inherited enthusiasm in architecture and interior design. Her own heritage included several links to architects and interior designers, and in every instance there was a hint of country house sophistication and elite elegance. Her social connections led her to further specialists like Mrs Bethell and her shop off Grosvenor Square – an established area of London for all things design related. For Nancy Lancaster, Kelmarsh Hall was only the start, and her design ethos spread rapidly during the Second World War. She would become owner of the decorating business Colefax and Fowler in 1944, regain hold on Kelmarsh, albeit for a short time, and eventually have her own English country house at Haseley Court by 1954. The English Country House Style was a formulation of ideals set out in elite society during the interwar period and reflected the tastes of a generation born at the end of the nineteenth century. Any hint of Englishness was the result of fashionable tastes dictated by those who chose to reminisce about a romantic yet eclectic countryside ideal.

 

References:

Martin Wood, Nancy Lancaster: English Country House Style. (2005)

Links:

Review of Nancy Lancaster: English Country House Style by Martin Wood (2005) from The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/15/garden/15nancy.html?pagewanted=all

The Houses of Nancy Lancaster article from Southern Accents http://www.southernaccents.com/architecture/architectural-essentials/houses-nancy-lancaster-00400000035775/

Nancy Lancaster obituary, August 1994 from The Telegraph http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/culture-obituaries/6021150/Nancy-Lancaster.html

Interior designer’s blog with nice piece on Nancy Lancaster, includes some good photos http://littleaugury.blogspot.com/2009/11/tree-inheritance.html and a more whimsical look at the chattels required for the English country house look http://littleaugury.blogspot.com/2009/12/for-christmas-in-tradition-of-nancy.html

Grosvenor Square in modern times – twentieth-century shops and interior design http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41849

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Wentworth Woodhouse Revisited: 2011 (part 1)

          I realise that I have already written a post on some aspect of Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire, but there is something extremely attractive about this place. In anticipation of Dan Cruickshank’s The Country House Revealed episode on Wentworth Woodhouse, on 31st May (and because I might not have access to a television or computer next week) I wanted to jot down what I believe are crucial points relating to this specific house and its owners. These may be more amateurish in delivery than Cruickshank’s method, but my own studies on Wentworth Woodhouse have revealed some fantastic stories.

Wentworth Woodhouse (copyright Country Life Magazine, May 1946)

          Currently the subject of a court hearing that must seem rather more contentious than others, Wentworth Woodhouse has played host to large elite families, politicians, teachers and students, a businessman, and a self-made architect. Unlike Dan Cruickshank’s previous case studies, Wentworth Woodhouse is better known thanks in the main to Catherine Bailey’s Black Diamonds which discusses the socio-economic circumstances of coal mining on the estate during the twentieth century. Most of Bailey’s book details the often strained relationships between the mine owners – the Earls Fitzwilliam – the local and governmental committees, and the local coal-mining families. Given that Black Diamonds has been well-received and is considered a good piece of scholarly reference, it’s high time the house itself received a bit more recognition.

            I am reliant on several sources for Wentworth Woodhouse since no history of the house has been bound together in the same way a guidebook might present a single biography. This also means compromising on a lot of detail here. For greater discussion of the destructive mining processes and the social impact this had, then Black Diamonds is the best place to start. The focus here however, will be in two parts; the first on the house, and the second part on the families and owners of Wentworth Woodhouse.

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           Several authors including Marcus Binney have written articles on the house and its parkland for Country Life magazine.  A few scholars have also produced comprehensive (yet unpublished) studies on the owners and their influences in political and socio-economic spheres (see references below). Arthur Young’s A Six Months Tour Through the North of England (1770) is also a fine contemporary source for eighteenth-century Wentworth Woodhouse relating the agricultural innovations on the estate.

           Yet, in line with Dan Cruickshank’s programme, I would like to draw attention to John Martin Robinson’s article, ‘Realise the Worth of Wentworth Woodhouse’ for Country Life in 1999. Here, Robinson stated the key issues which have affected the house, and to some degree he offered remedies to the many constraints still attached to the house in 2011:

                 The failure of Wentworth Woodhouse to become a ‘stately home’ open to the public after the Second World War and thus to have secured its future … is an architectural tragedy. [However,] it is important to recognise that the value of the house and estate lies in more than its architecture. Wentworth Woodhouse represents as nowhere else the Whig synthesis of political liberty, scientific and economic development, patronage of the arts, landscape gardening, industrial and agricultural improvement.

          John Martin Robinson’s reaction to Wentworth Woodhouse being placed on the open market in 1998 was characteristic of many individuals working in the heritage sector and academia. It is in the capable hands of self-made architect Clifford Newbold and his family these days who has long-term plans of restoration and refurbishment. This episode of the house’s history was the main focus for two editions of Country Life magazine published in February 2010. Whether Newbold’s plans will mean greater public access over the coming years is yet unclear.

          This is what makes Wentworth Woodhouse so unique; people want to see it open and accessible for the very reasons John Martin Robinson states in his article. It is architecturally significant, but it should not be viewed as a shell to be filled with the appropriate chattels in the same way as South Wraxall, Kinross House and Easton Neston. Its foundations were laid as part of a spirited rivalry between family members in the early 1700s and grew in both size and reputation throughout the eighteenth century. Therefore, its ‘working’ history is also relevant as a home and administrative base for the Marquesses of Rockingham, and later the Earls Fitzwilliam. It is of national and regional significance, possibly international too, given the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham’s political role and connection with Colonial America.

Engraving of the west front by John Cole c.1728 (Bodleian Library)

Wentworth Woodhouse is a hybrid of Baroque and Palladianism with an east front longer than that of Buckingham Palace and stretching across 606ft of ground. Its greatest features are certainly its hall or saloon, the lower or pillared hall and Whistlejacket Room. Built for Thomas Wentworth (1693-1750), Lord Malton, later 1st Marquess of Rockingham in two phases, the house can be viewed as two distinct blocks united with courts and interlinked wings. The west front (garden front) was begun in 1725 (incorporating an older seventeenth century house later known as the Clifford Lodgings) in brick with stone dressings in the Baroque style. A neat engraving dating from c.1728 by John Cole shows the west front and its approach (as shown). The east front was underway before the west front was complete in 1734 which has raised questions about the drastic stylistic changes occurring within a continuous building programme. Marcus Binney suggests that the 1st Marquess may have ‘been forced into a stylistic about-turn under pressure from Lord Burlington, Sir Thomas Robinson and other Palladian apostles and converts among Yorkshire landowners.’ This development hid the west front behind a new façade and turned the approach through 180 degrees. No doubt Cruickshank will make this a key point in his episode on Wentworth Woodhouse.

          The designer of the west front may still remain a mystery, but the east front was the product of designs made by R. Tunnicliffe and Henry Flitcroft and completed c.1750. Additions were made at later periods, especially to the Clifford Lodgings by John Carr in the 1760s, who also added an extra storey to parts of the east front, and James ‘Athenian’ Stuart who may have provided plans for some internal design work. The building of Wentworth Woodhouse provides many routes of enquiry for the architectural historian and it would be fantastic to see some of the anomalies pointed out by Dan Cruickshank. To ‘reveal’ the architectural and design details at this house would not only be necessary but a terrible misdemeanour if not explored deeply enough.
 

References: 

Marjorie Bloy, ‘Rockingham and Yorkshire: The Political, Economic and Social Role of Charles Watson-Wentworth, the Second Marquis of Rockingham’ (PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, 1986)

Paul James Nunn, ‘The Management of Some South Yorkshire Landed Estates in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Linked with the Central Economic Development of the Area’ (PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, 1985)

Country Life articles:

Unknown author, ‘Wentworth Woodhouse: the Seat of Earl Fitzwilliam’, May 10 1946, pp.854-857

Marcus Binney, ‘Wentworth Woodhouse Revisited I’, (March 17 1983), pp.624-627

Marcus Binney, ‘Wentworth Woodhouse Revisited II’, (March 24, 1983), pp.708-711

Marcus Binney, ‘Wentworth Woodhouse,Yorkshire’, (January 24, 1991), pp.60-63

John Martin Robinson, ‘Realise the Worth of Wentworth Woodhouse’, (21 January 1999), pp.58-61

 Also, Country Life produced articles with images from the years 1906, 1924 (5 articles that year), and 1934. See, http://www.countrylifeimages.co.uk/ or scroll to Learning Resources on your right in this blog.

Links:         

Regional newspaper, The Star on the current inhabitants of Wentworth Woodhouse, 21 May 2011, http://tiny.cc/v21wa

WentworthVillage local history and community pages, http://www.wentworthvillage.net/history/wentworth-woodhouse

Blog ‘The Country Seat’ entry on Wentworth Woodhouse, http://countryhouses.wordpress.com/2010/02/17/the-greatest-country-house-youve-never-heard-of-wentworth-woodhouse/

The Wikipedia entry (adapted from the DiCamillo Companion database entry) for Wentworth Woodhouse, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wentworth_Woodhouse

Dr Marjorie Bloy’s website dedicated to the politics of the second half of the eighteenth century including Charles Watson-Wentworth, http://www.historyhome.co.uk/pms/rocky.htm

Stories and Reminiscences: ‘Wentworth Woodhouse was My Home’, http://www.dooyoo.co.uk/sightseeing-national/wentworth-woodhouse-wentworth/1239735/

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Belton House, Lincolnshire

       ‘Once inside the house, with its maze of corridors, they could lose her. Then hurrying, they saw her blue cloak. She pushed a huge panelled door and passed through, leaving it open behind her. There was heavy, gleaming furniture, walls lined with gilt-framed pictures, richly draped windows … They were through the second door now, and into an amazing crimson … Minty crossed the room and came into a vast light entrance hall. There on the great black and white diamonds of the floor, was that small blue figure, a chess piece.’

Helen Cresswell Moondial (Puffin books, London 1988) pp.148-9

 

Belton House (copyright Lincolnian http://www.flickr.com/photos/lincolnian)

 

       Helen Cresswell (1934-2005) had long been inspired by the house at Belton before she wrote Moondial, and had wanted to pen a children’s novel based on the building and interiors of the house. For her main character Araminta Cane, (Minty) the drama would unfold upon the lawns, amongst the trees and formal gardens. Eventually, the novel was set almost entirely within the grounds rather than the house; the latter then providing scenes which offered the reader uncomfortable moments of claustrophobia and eerie solitude.

        There are  many websites which describe Belton as the backdrop to Moondial, some of which detail the nostalgia of the television series from 1988. A simple internet search will fetch up most of these. Admittedly, this was probably the turning point in my own mind as a child, and Belton suddenly represented the ideal image of all I was interested in as a budding (and probably very nosey) historian. Afterall, social history often exposes the private lives of people – they’re just no longer around to protest against the daring intrusions. What Cresswell thrust upon her young readers was the complexities of country house living throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with its hierarchies and varying degrees of subordination and knowing ‘one’s place’ within four walls as well as in a wider society. Amongst many other themes, the drama of the novel therefore plays on the necessity for escape and the achievement of youthful adventure for its main characters.

        Within this narrative, much of Belton House is lost, or at least a little faded since it is the Caius Gabriel Cibber sundial that steals the show! The house itself is beautifully arranged, and for the country house connoisseur it is certainly a delight to view its symmetry, colour and use of continental influences. Cresswell’s novel provides a supernatural layer to this country house gem; a fictional element which has served to enhance the architecture at Belton and place it within the country house genre of writing.

        Belton House today is cared for by The National Trust, and has been so since the early 1980s when it was given by the 7th Lord Brownlow. Built in the 1680s for Sir John Brownlow to the designs of Captain William Winde (c.1642–1722) Belton has been regarded as the perfect image of an English country house. According to my 1987 guidebook, Belton ‘represents a fitting climax to twenty-five years of Carolean domestic architecture which produced some of the most logically perfect and satisfying dwellings ever built in England.’ The style of architecture is Anglo-Dutch; that of Palladianism but characterised by a marked sobriety and restraint which created establishments set out as those for fine gentlemen rather than that of an aspiring aristocratic elite.

       Arranged in the Elizabethan ‘H’ plan, Belton has a simple structure with large central rooms on the ground floor flanked by smaller reception rooms which lead onto passages giving access to the wings or pavilions with their secondary staircases and further spacious rooms at each end. The interiors are a grand mixture of ornament and decoration ranging from the masculine cold hard marble to that of the softer, warmer tones and textures so distinct within many a country house with 300 years of history and design influences.

The Red Drawing Room (Country Life, December 2004)

       Incidentally, the opening quote from Moondial is not just a collection of typical country house interiors. The huge panelled door to which Cresswell refers guides her characters into the depths of the house through the Breakfast Room, then the Red Drawing Room (pictured above), passing through to the Marble Hall and eventually to the Staircase Hall.

       For a taste of late seventeenth-century country house architecture at its finest, then Belton is worth a visit. The National Trust makes much of the landscaped parkland and formal gardens including the Orangery and sculptures, and its location near to RAF Cranwell also lends a further nostalgic connection to the grand World War II air displays in June with The Belton Spitfire Prom. Yet, once inside the house, it would be unfortunate to miss the rather less conspicuous imagery of Belton’s owners – the Brownlow family and the neo-classical interiors by James Wyatt.

Links. Belton House National Trust site; http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-beltonhouse

The Heritage Trail entry for Belton House; http://www.theheritagetrail.co.uk/stately%20homes/belton%20house.htm

References

Surely, the best overall detailing of Belton House on the internet is to be found at The DiCamillo Companion which contains information on style, architects, interiors, ownership and much more. This has also been adapted for the Wikipedia entry for Belton House.

Geoffrey Beard. Architectural History. Vol. 27, ‘Design and Practice in British Architecture: Studies in Architectural History Presented to Howard Colvin’ (1984), pp. 150-162.
Helen Cresswell. Moondial (Puffin, London 1988).
Trevor Lummis and Jan Marsh. The Woman’s Domain: Women and the English Country House. Chapter 3, ‘Land and Lineage’ 34- 64. (1990).
Jonathan Marsden and Andrew Barber. Belton House Guidebook. (The National Trust, 1985 and 1987)
Annabel Westman. ‘Back in the Gold and Red’, Country Life, December 16 /23 (2004) 52-57.

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