Tag Archives: Thomas Chippendale

Thomas Chippendale Country House Commissions 1757-1779

'Violin' bookcase made for the Earl of Pembroke 1763, Wilton House.

          Having written very recently on the late eighteenth-century inventory of Harewood House, Yorkshire, I thought this might be a useful adage to the Thomas Chippendale pool of knowledge! Although Chippendale, and his son Thomas Chippendale the Younger are well-known names – often overwhelmingly so, their craftsmanship still receives great interest. The following list is not exhaustive and there may be houses which have been wrongly linked with Chippendale, but I am dependant on a mixture of old and relatively up-to-date sources – besides I am no Chippendale expert!

         As F. Gordon Roe points out in Old English Furniture, ‘…the tendency to label almost everything of certain types ‘Chippendale’ has robbed other leading craftsmen or designers of their due share of credit … On the other hand, some writers have perhaps tended unduly to minimize Chippendale’s importance, for though it is obvious that his firm could not have produced more than a fraction of the work so freely assigned to it, he was evidently a craftsman of outstanding merit.’ (p. 9) Not every commission was extensive, and some patrons may have desired only one or two pieces for their remodelled library or state rooms, others demanded entire suites of furniture. In either case, we should remember that Chippendale was not a lone craftsman and may rarely have even touched the pieces which left his London workshop.

THE HOUSES.

  • Alscot Park, Warwickshire, for James West, 1760-67.
  • Appuldurcombe House, Isle of Wight, for Sir Richard Worsley 1776-78. (Only the shell remains and is now owned by English Heritage).
  • Arniston, Midlothian, for Lord and Lady Arniston, 1757.
  • Aske Hall, Yorkshire, for Sir Laurence Dundas 1763-66.
  • Audley End, Essex, for Sir John Griffin, 1774.
  • Badminton House, Gloucestershire for the Duchess of Beaufort, 1764.
  • Blair Castle, Perthshire, for the Duke of Athol, 1758.
  • ? Boynton Hall, Yorkshire, for Sir George Strickland, 1768?
  • Brockenhurst Park, Hampshire, for Edward Morant, 1769.
  • Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, for Lord Melbourne, 1771-76.
  • Burton Constable, Yorkshire, for William Constable, 1768-79 (also for his London home in Mansfield Square).
  • Cannon Hall, Yorkshire, for John Spencer, 1768.
  • Corsham Court, Wiltshire, for Paul Methuen, 1779.
  • Croome Court, Worcestershire, for the Earl of Coventry, 1764-70 (also his London home 29 Piccadilly).
  • Dalmahoy, Midlothian, for the 14th Earl of Morton, 1762.
  • Dalton Hall, Yorkshire, for Charles Hotham-Thompson, 1777.
  • Denton Park, Otley, Yorkshire, for James Ibbetson (Chippendale’s only commission within his own parish).
  • Dumfries House, Ayrshire, for the 5th Earl of Dumfries, 1759-66.
  • ? Firle Place, Sussex, for Sir Thomas Gage, 1770s?
  • Foremark Hall, Derbyshire, for Sir Robert Burdett, 1766-74.
  • Goldsborough Hall, Yorkshire, for Daniel Lascelles 1771-76.
  • Goodneston, Kent, for Sir Brook Bridges, 1765.
  • Harewood House, Yorkshire, for Edwin Lascelles, 1769-76.
  • Hestercombe House, Somerset, for Coplestone Ware Bamfylde, no date.
  • Langton Hall, Yorkshire, for Thomas Norcliffe, 1767.
  • Kenwood House, Middlesex, for the 1st Ealr of Mansfield, 1769.
  • Mersham le Hatch, Kent, for Sir Edward Knatchbull, 1767-79.
  • Newby Hall, Yorkshire, for William Weddell, c.1772-76.
  • Normanton Park, Rutland, for Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1768-79.
  • Nostell Priory, Yorkshire, for Sir Rowland Winn 1766-79 (also his London home 11 St James’s Square).
  • Paxton House, Berwickshire, for Ninian Home ,1774.
  • Petworth House, Sussex, for the Earl of Egremont, 1777-78.
  • Saltram House, Devon, for Lord Boringdon, 1771.
  • Sandon Hall, Staffordshire, for the Earl of Harrowby, 1763-77.
  • Sherbourne Castle, Dorset, for Earl Digby, 1774.
  • Stourhead House, Wiltshire, for Sir Richard Colt Hoare (Thomas Chippendale the Younger, 1790s).
  • Stowe House, Buckinghamshire, for Earl Temple, 1757.
  • Temple Newsam House, Yorkshire, for Viscount Irwin 1774 (and Chippendale the Younger, 1790s).
  • Thoresby Park, Nottinghamshire, for the Duke of Kingston, 1770.
  • Wilton House, Wiltshire, for the Earl of Pembroke 1762-73 (also his London home Pembroke House).
  • Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire, for the Earl of Hardwicke, 1777.
  • Wolverley House, Worcestershire, for Edward Knight Jnr., 1763-69.

Japanned wardrobe, Nostell Priory.

Half round or sidetables made for Denton Hall, now on display at Temple Newsam.

Bookcase at Dumfries House

References:

Oliver Brackett, Thomas Chippendale: A Study of His Life, Work, and Influence(1924). The Burlington Magazine. Vol. 122, No. 927, (June, 1980). 
 
Anthony Coleridge, Chippendale Furniture: The Work of Thomas Chippendale and His Contemporaries in the Rococo Taste (1968).
 
Christopher Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale,(1978).Peter Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the Eighteenth Century (1958).
 
Clifford Musgrave, Adam and Hepplewhite and Other NeoClassical Furniture (1966).
 
 
Links:
 
Thomas Chippendale on Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Chippendale
 
Thomas Chippendale. The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director: being a large collection of the most elegant and useful designs of household furniture in the Gothic, Chinese and modern taste. (1754). Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture. University of Wisconsin.  http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts-idx?id=DLDecArts.ChippGentCab

The Chippendale Society http://www.thechippendalesociety.co.uk/index.htm

Useful biography of Thomas Chippendale (in need of modernising!) http://216.92.23.157/chippendale/chronology.htm

Ronald Phillips Antiques – fantastic images of Chippendale furniture  http://www.ronaldphillipsantiques.com/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=5&categoryID=7777

Learn the Chippendale way! http://www.chippendale.co.uk/

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A Harewood House Inventory, 1795.

          The following details are from a copy of an inventory taken upon the death of Edwin Lascelles, Lord Harewood in 1795. [1] The inventory itself is vast and covers the entire house from bottom to top and back again. Inventories of country houses are fascinating because of the depth of information you can retrieve from them simply by discovering the types of items belonging to specific rooms. Not only do you get a sense of how the house was used overall, and by whom, but also their tastes, interests and personal routines. And within the country house specifically, it is possible to view the social microcosm established through owner and staff members. The richness of textures, ornament, the variety of goods, and the storage of chattels reveals the very ordinary day-to-day routines, but highlights the contemporary trends of the time at which the inventory was taken. 

          The very obvious value of this document lies with the fame of those involved in creating the house. Shortly after the death of his father Henry Lascelles in 1753, Edwin commissioned John Carr (1723-1807) to design a new house on the Harewood estate; by 1759 the foundation stone was laid. Robert Adam (1728-1792) was working on designs for the interiors by the mid 1760s and Yorkshire-born Thomas Chippendale  (1718-1779) was made responsible for the furniture and furnishings. For the latter it would be his most grand of commissions, and it no doubt helped in elevating his name as cabinet-maker amongst the elite and aristocracy. However, getting the commissioner to pay for work could be along drawn-out affair. Questions over a substantial payment from Lascelles arose in 1771 (a sum of £3,024 -19 – 0d was still outstanding), but were not settled until 1777. Chippendale’s work is evident throughout the entire 1795 inventory of Harewood House and some of these pieces are highlighted below, indeed many are still in situ within the house. Yet, it would be repetitive to include too much discussion on Chippendale’s large contribution to Harewood. Much research into attribution continues today and The Chippendale Society provides many talks and tours of key collections. The motive here is to examine the diversity of goods at a universally renowned British country house at a significant moment in its history. As the guidebook states, ‘… Edwin Lascelles inherited a manor, spent carefully and left a mansion.’

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There are over 90 rooms at Harewood, including closet spaces and passageways. To give an idea of the layout of the inventory, this is a sample of the goods and chattels for the Dining Room.

1   Grate, Fender, Tongs,  Poker & Hearth Brush      

Harewood dining room guidebook

Harewood House Dining Room (Harewood House Trust)

1   Turkey Carpet and green serge cover

3   Crimson Damask Window Curtains

3   White Canvas Window Blinds

2   Mahogany Sophas covered with Red Leather

20  Mahogany Chairs ditto

2   Sideboard Tables with inlaid Tops and brass ornaments

2   Pedestals & Vauses to suit ditto

1   Oval Winekeeper with brass ornament

1   Face Fire Screen

3   Urns upon Pedestals

 

          The dining room at Harewood received a massive overhaul during the nineteenth century when Sir Charles Barry was called in to make alterations to the house in the 1840s under the watchful eye of Louisa, Lady Harewood wife of Henry, 3rd Earl of Harewood. For this reason, the dining room as viewed today against the 1795 inventory offers an insight into how the room has changed depending on the needs of a household. Barry raised the ceiling and by deepening the room abolished an arched recess making the space more symmetrical and clearly larger in order to accommodate the 3rd Earl, his wife, their thirteen children and any guests. Adam’s original plans for the room – including the arched recess (originally where the fireplace wall is pictured above) had niches for the urns on pedestals, space for a sideboard and wine-cooler. Before the room was completed, the fireplace was given prominence within the recess instead and the sideboards, urns on pedestals and wine-cooler were placed against flanking walls where they remain today. As is also visible in the image , the 20 mahogany chairs covered with red leather still remain too, albeit surrounding a nineteenth-century dining table!

          In later years, some of the contents were sold or broken up. Take for example furniture from the the Couch Room (now part of the Watercolour Rooms or East Bedroom) where the 1795 inventory lists 1 French Couch Bedstead with Dome Top in burnished gold and crimson damask hangings. The dome top was ornamented with a crane about two feet high in gilt

Harewood Library Writing Table now at Temple Newsam House

lime wood, but when the bed was broken up in the nineteenth century, many pieces were lost or discarded. The crane eventually reappeared at a minor sale and was acquired by the Chippendale Society to be put on display at Temple Newsam House in Leeds. As the home of the Chippendale Society, Temple Newsam House holds a good deal of furniture from the original Chippendale commission at Harewood. The most magnificent is surely the library writing table, listed in the 1795 inventory as 1 Large inlaid Library Table with Brass Ornaments. The table was sold in 1965 to help pay for Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood‘s death duties.

          The compiler of the inventory entered the house at basement level starting in the kitchen, scullery and larders, he then turned back on himself to get to the still room and housekeeper’s room on the other side of the main basement passageway. Next came the steward’s rooms, butler’s room and pantries, closets and some servant bedrooms including private entertaining space used by Edwin Lascelles – the coffee room and billiard room. The coffee room contained a wild mixture of delicate and sturdy objects which suggest the taste and interests of Lascelles before his death. There were 45

19th century versions of Wedgwood black basalt sphinxes

Copperplate & Metzotinto Pictures with Frames and Glasses, 2 China Flower Pots over the Fireplace, 2 Small Jars over the door, 4 Small Beasts, 4 Shells, 2 Mahogany Pedistals, 2 Lions on pedistals, 2 Mahogany Dining Tables, 2 Breakfast Tables, 1 Two headed Couch with 2 Bolsters, & 1 Cushion Covered with Needle Work, 10 Oval backed Satton Wood Chairs covered with Needle Work, and 1 Old Easy Chair with leather bottom & covered. Similarly, the billiard room contained amongst other things, 1 Turnup Bed with Moreen Hangings, 2 Pillows, 3 Blankets, 1 Counterpane, 6 Mahogany Armed Chairs with Red leather Bottoms, 1 Mahogany Library Table, 2 Bookstands painted green, 3 China Jars, 4 China Figures, and 2 Black Wedgwood Sphinxes.

          From these rooms, the compiler entered into the passageway and on towards the maids area of the basement including stores, cleaning rooms and dairy. He lists several more bedrooms and storage spaces until reaching the

Harewood State Bed

servants’ hall before ascending the staircase (probably the main staircase) to get to the Great Hall on the principal floor. Most of the rooms on this floor are open to the public today, and as with the example of the dining room above, much of the furniture still survives from the time of the 1795 inventory. Some pieces have been moved to other rooms, some have stayed in the room for which they were intended like the State Bedroom with 1 Bedstead with Dome Top in burnished Gold & green Damask Hangings, 1 Green Damask Counterpane, and 2 Green Damask Window Curtains. Travelling in the opposite direction to the modern-day visitor route, the compiler came back to the main stairs where he noted 2 Vauses, 6 Green & gold Pedestals & Lamps, 1 Clock & Mahogany Case, and 1 Model of a Ship and a Stand. From here he ascended the main stairs to the attic storey or lodging rooms. A total of 14 lodgings with corresponding dressing rooms are recorded and all named according to the design of the wallpaper and furnishings; for example the Purple Cotton Room, the Blue Stripe Room, the Feather Cotton Room, the Bamboo Room, the Red Lodging Room, the Yellow Chintz Room, the Pea Green Room, and the Crimson Room. These form part of the private quarters of the Lascelles family today.

          But what of the more ordinary or extraordinary objects? Throughout the house there are assorted everyday items like clothes horses and racks, night tables (bedside tables sometimes including room for a chamber pot), shaving stands and flower pots. There are those which would also be very familiar to the country house visitor like boot jacks and mahogany ‘toilet’ tables (dressing table). Mixed in with these are those more unusual items which are the gadgets of their day, or form earlier versions of what we take for granted in our own homes today like weighing scales or a bidet.

Possibly a late 18th century bidet

For Edwin’s brother Daniel Lascelles, a bidet was kept in his own apartments at Harewood. In each of the lodging rooms there was a boot jack, a night table or pot table, a washing stand, clothes horse, a pier glass and perhaps a sofa amongst other things.

A Gouty Chair c. 1800 (V&A Collection)

On the principal floor, and placed in a closet next to the dining room, there was a weighing machine. The presence of which conjures up all kinds of images of hypochondria and paranoia about weight. Yet the Merlin’s Gouty Chair in the coffee room below may serve to remind us of how rich eighteenth-century diets played havoc with the body. 

 

The significance of this document in discovering more about a newly built eighteenth-century country house should be examined further. What is discussed above only scratches the surface of social and decorative art histories associated with a country house. I have not even got close to the ‘below stairs’ section of the inventory with its 36 small stew pots, 65 small moulds, or 174 pewter plates! Within the constraints of copyright, I hope it may be possible to return to other aspects of this in later posts.

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Assorted 18th century household paraphernalia. A boot jack is in the centre and a weighing 'machine' is on the right (copyright Christies)

 [1] I acquired a printed copy of the Harewood inventory 1795 at a previous employment whilst helping to shift piles of old educational papers and tatty exhibition related stuff years ago. Apparently the inventory used to be a part of the Harewood House website learning and access pages but these seem to have disappeared. More curious is the actual location of the original document. The Harewood and Lascelles family papers were for many years held at the West Yorkshire Archive Service (WYAS) in Leeds. I made several fruitless searches on the National Archives and WYAS websites, and a Google search brought a footnote up from S. D. Smith’s Slavery, family and gentry capitalism in the British Atlantic (2006) which listed the document as ‘Inventory of Edwin, Lord Harewood, 27 October 1795 IB 11/3/85’ with no clue to its location. However, the National Archives lists the Harewood Papers as belonging to the Harewood House Trust which indicates the return of the papers to the house itself. With no real intention of appearing churlish, I find this a disappointing move for those interested in exploring more of Harewood House, and the Trust seems reluctant to reveal the contents of its archives without an appointment, phone call or email.

 

 

References:

Clive Edwards et al., British Furniture 1600-2000, Intelligent Layman. (2005)

Harewood, Yorkshire: A Guide (2000)

Mary Mauchline, Harewood House: One of the Treasure Houses of Britain (Revised 2nd edition, 1992)

Simon David Smith, Slavery, family, and gentry capitalism in the British Atlantic: the world of the Lascelles,1648-1834. (2006)

 

Links:

Harewood House website http://www.harewood.org/home (see also the Treasure Houses of Britain) and the restoration of the Harewood State Bed http://www.harewood.org/conservation-estate/conservation-projects/state-bed

Biographies of People and Place: The Harewood Estate 1698-1813, by Timur Guran Tatlioglu http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1405/1/Microsoft_Word_-_Thesis_TGT_2010_v2_Vol_1.pdf

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